Food security is an ability to ensure the availability of adequate nutritious food for the whole population at a timely manner with an ease of access to it. This is mainly followed in every nation to prevent disruptions to food supply mainly due to problems in food production, transportation, instable economy, natural calamities and conditions like droughts and famines. In India, there were two situations witnessed with food problems, which are starvation due to famine and the under-nutrition in below poverty line families due to inability to purchase food. The two famines during 1965 and 1966 had impinging impacts on the food consumption. The shortages in food and problems in dispensation have brought rampant situations leaving people hunger-stricken and affected with hunger diseases of chronic terms. The chronic disease such as ‘stunt’ starts to cause effects to the fetus in the womb itself because of malnutrition of its mother. To circumvent all these perturbing issues in the food system, the food security bill was passed in India.
The food security prominently throws spot lights on the availability, accessibility and utilization of the food. Availability of food articulates the need for maintaining enough quantity of stock for self-sufficient needs and also for encroaching unexpected situations in future. Food accessibility to all the demands at right time is achieved by means of proper transport, apt types of food reaching the location. The utilization of the food supplied is assured that the provision of healthy food with required nutrients and vitamin, protein, fat and carbohydrate quotients so as to mitigate malnutrition. This has an insight consideration about the cultural and social aspects of the respective region. The problems of deficiency in nutrients and infections arising out mainly due to lower literacy rates, improper sanitation in drinking water and ignorance of health care, are addressed and the way to solutions are paved out by food security bill. This umbrella term encompasses on various aspects of food safety viz, chemicals contained, microbiological concepts (micro and macro nutrient) and microphysical perspectives
Food security also focuses on provision of food grains at subsidy so as to cover out the target public distribution system to the needy. This system at affordable prices is an attempt to bring improvement to the vulnerable population in worse affected areas of famine, droughts and other natural disaster prone areas. Though many critics had thrown tantrums on the subsidies on PDS, it ensures the BLP gets their food grains even at prices mounting. The essential nutrient health benefits are concentrated on most vulnerable target audience such as children and women. The deficiencies are identified, detected and corrective actions are taken. There are various special nutrition programme, the integrated child development services scheme and other innovative features of tackling food distribution between BPL and APL people.
The security in food is also emphasizing towards the elimination of adulteration in food leading to malnutrition. The unscrupulous adulterated food by any people in the trading chain causes various intricate nutritional dearth and chronic diseases. Food security can thus be viewed as a multidimensional phenomenon indulging from source to the end in the food chain, to ensure the right process is carried out in each stage.